AKTIFITAS ACTINOMYCETES ENDOFIT SEBAGAI BIONEMATISIDA TERHADAP MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA Activity of Endophytic Actinomycetes as Bionematicide against Meloidogyne javanica

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Dwi Ratna Anugrahwati

Abstract

ABSTRAK


Peranan actinomycetes endofit sebagai agen pengendali hayati telah banyak diketahui, terutama dalam menghambat jamur pathogen tanaman, tetapi perannya dalam menekan infestasi nematode masih sedikit diketahui.  Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengamati potensi actinomycetes endofit dalam menghambat nematoda parasit tanaman Meloidogyne javanica.  Ekstrak methanol dari 42 strain actinomycetes endofit diuji secara in vitro untuk mengamati efeknya sebagai nematisida pada root-knot nematode (Nematoda puru akar) M. javanica.  Metabolit dari 84% strain-strain yang diuji secara signifikan menurunkan motilitas nematoda, sedangkan 21% menyebabkan kematian juvenile.  Metabolit dari Streptomyces somaliensis PM143 dan Streptomyces peruviensis EN26 menunjukkan efek nematostatic tertinggi dengan tingkat penurunan motilitas M. javanica yang signifikan, berturut-turut 54% dan 44%.  Evaluasi selanjutnya dilakukan in planta untuk menguji aktifitas nematisida dari 8 strain terpilih representasi dari berbagai tingkat aktifitas nematisida secara in vitro pada tanaman mentimun (Cucumis sativus L.) sebagai crop model.  Walaupun jumlah nematode yang memasuki system perakaran tidak terpengaruhi, tetapi S. somaliensis PM143 dan S. peruviensis EN26, juga S. somaliensis PM349 mampu menghambat perkembangan stadia nematode dan menurunkan jumlah puru akar (root galls) pada tanaman mentimun.


ABSTRACT


The role of endophytic actinomycetes as biocontrol agents has been studied, especially in inhibiting fungal plant pathogens.  However, little is known on their role in suppressing nematode infestation.  Therefore, the main aim of this study was to observe the potential of endophytic actinomycetes in suppressing plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne javanica.  Methanol extracts of 42 strains of endophytic actinomycetes were screened in vitro to determine their nematicidal effects on the root-knot nematode M. javanica.  Metabolites from 84% of the strains tested significantly reduced the motility of nematodes, while 21% caused juvenile mortality.  Metabolites of Streptomyces somaliensis PM143 and Streptomyces peruviensis EN26 showed the highest nematostatic effect in vitro, with a significant reduction in motility of M. javanica by 54% and 44%, respectively.  Further evaluation was carried out in planta to test the nematicidal activity of eight strains representing various level of nematicidal activity in vitro using cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) as crop model.  Even though the number of nematodes invading the root system was not affected, S. somaliensis PM143 and S. peruviensis EN26, as well as S. somaliensis PM349, were able to inhibit nematode growth and reduce the number of root galls in cucumber plants.

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How to Cite
ANUGRAHWATI, Dwi Ratna. AKTIFITAS ACTINOMYCETES ENDOFIT SEBAGAI BIONEMATISIDA TERHADAP MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA. CROP AGRO, Scientific Journal of Agronomy, [S.l.], v. 1, n. 2, p. 114-122, dec. 2017. ISSN 1978-8223. Available at: <https://cropagro.unram.ac.id/index.php/caj/article/view/21>. Date accessed: 22 june 2018.
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